SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH <p><strong>SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH</strong> is a peer-reviewed (refereed) and open access journal<strong>.</strong> IJELLH is indexed with <strong> <a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEpmvLz85rDq7nHLXm3B9JKSvTL1w">Google Scholar</a></strong> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEUekxyd4bJz8pEsTwPT1wuvkAmHg">Academia</a>. SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH has been granted new Online ISSN: 2582-3574 and Print ISSN: 2582-4406. The journal is published by SMART MOVES publications, Bhopal, India.</p> <p>The previously granted ISSN 2321-7065 was for the International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities (IJELLH), which was valid from June 2013 until November 2019. From November 2019 onwards, the new title of the journal will be SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH. IJELLH provides researchers with an online platform to publish their research work.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope for publication:</strong></p> <p>The primary objective of IJELLH is to offer an online open-access platform for international researchers. IJELLH publishes articles on a broad spectrum of English Language, English Literature and Linguistics. The journal further covers various aspects of the research field and most of these are mentioned hereafter:</p> <p><strong> English Language</strong> – Grammar, Punctuation, Accent, Comparative Study, ELS (English as a second or foreign language), English language teachers’ training, Language teaching methodologies<strong> </strong>and other related topics.</p> <p><strong> English Literature</strong> – Fiction from Chaucerian Age to Post Colonial Age, Canadian Literature, Indian Literature &amp; many other topics related to Literature till date and related subject areas.</p> <p><strong> Linguistics</strong> – Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are three aspects to this study: language form, language meaning and language in context. IJOHMN published following subject areas like Applied Linguistics, Language Acquisition, Language Documentation, Linguistic Theories, Philosophy of Language, Phonetics, Sociolinguistics, Text and Corpus Linguistics, Translating and Interpreting, Writing Systems and related subject areas.</p> <p><strong>PKP PN</strong></p> <p>IJELLH is preserving OUR PUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS with <a href="">PKP PN</a> ensuring that their content will be secure and available into the future. PKP PN functions as a “dark archive”. PKP has developed the PKP Preservation Network (PKP PN) to digitally preserve OJS journals. The<a href=""> LOCKSS</a> program offers decentralized and distributed preservation, seamless perpetual access, and preservation of the authentic original version of the content.</p> <p> </p> Smart Moves en-US SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH 2582-4406 English Language Teaching: Problems and Solutions <p>English is one of the most influential and important language of the world. It is an international language. We cannot ignore the importance of English language because most of the learning and research are available in English medium. If we have to establish communication with the world, we must have to learn English. As English is a foreign language to us, there are lots of problems in teaching of English. Therefore, in this paper we will examine the problems of teaching of English as well as see if there is any solution to these problems.</p> Dr. Jai Vardhan Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Jai Vardhan Kumar 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 8 9 1 9 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10745 Man and Nature: The Everlasting Bond <p>Interdependent relationship between man and nature in Ruskin Bond’s short stories can be come across. Emphasis is given to the protection of animals and trees. He exhorts man to return to the lap of nature.&nbsp; The stories are powerful enough to stimulate and inspire children towards nature. It is important for all to be aware of ecocriticism as a movement in literature.&nbsp; The author highlights the human threats to nature like deforestation and quarry mining. Village life brings contentment and the people derive joys out of nature. Nature becomes a character in Ruskin Bond’s stories. This study focuses on the relationship between man and nature and the need to enlighten children about preservation of nature through literature.</p> Dr. Cynthia Catherine Michael Copyright (c) 2020 Settings Dr. Cynthia Catherine Michael 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 8 9 10 20 Online Language Learning Resources: A Feature Analysis <p>The onslaught of Covid-19 pandemic has made the current year the least effective as far as academic activities are concerned. Concerns and doubts are looming large on proper impartation of class room teaching, right from elementary to higher education. Inquisitiveness in us is exploring virtual mode of education and there is no better time to ponder upon the method and the medium than now and access it’s potential. Numerous websites have started providing virtual classes and courses in varied subjects and are turning more and more creative and interactive to the users. The present paper tries to explore the language teaching and learning as being presently provided by various on-line resources across the globe including India.&nbsp;</p> <p>This article aims at evaluating the online language learning websites and looks into the availabilities of linguistic contents and materials. It also looks into the techniques and activities used as a part of language instruction practice by the websites. This study has used the secondary sources to do the qualitative analysis with quantitative expressions. For the current study, multiple websites have been assessed on the basis of certain parameters such as, number of languages available for learning, conduction of placement test, accessibility, learning purpose, learning level, language activities, linguistic contents, language assessment and user friendliness. Following are the elaborations of the mentioned features.</p> Sonali Mahanta Copyright (c) 2020 Sonali Mahanta 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 8 9 21 29 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10749 Manju Kapur’s The Immigrant: A Saga of Marital Disharmony <p>Manju Kapur’s fourth novel <em>The Immigrant</em> was published in 2008 and was shortlisted for the DSC prize for South Asian Literature. It was subtitled by Kapur as ‘a truly compelling portrait of an arranged marriage’ in which she explores the depths of an Indian woman’s mind struggling in search for her own happiness in a foreign country. The novel also deals with the problems of woman aspiring for higher life in general. It is a mesmerizing saga about the complexities of marriage and NRI life by Kapur. The paper is an attempt to show the loneliness, suffocation and longing of a modern woman in an arranged marriage in the context to Indian society.</p> Dr. Bajrangi Lal Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Bajrangi Lal Gupta 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 8 9 30 38 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10751 The Evolution of Man: Studying Sri Aurobindo's Dramatic Ouevre <p>Sri Aurobindo wrote around eleven verse plays, much in the tradition of the Elizabethan poetic plays. Many similarities and equally numbered distinctions may be traced midst the dramatic output of William Shakespeare and Sri Aurobindo. However, of the eleven plays only five plays are complete, in that they have a five act structure, namely- <em>Viziers of Bassora, Eric, Rodogune, Perseus: The Deliverer</em> and <em>Vasavadutta</em>. The genealogy of all these plays may be traced to the legends or myths, of the various ancient cultures which populated the world and shaped its history. Irrespective of their different myths of origin, Sri Aurobindo,&nbsp; much like Shakespeare employs these stories only as the raw clay, while he mould the statue out of it, according to his own vision, that is the Evolution of Man.</p> <p>An analysis of Sri Aurobindo’s plays elucidates the unparalleled range and vision to which his plays bear testimony. The notable feature of Sri Aurobindo’s plays is that they portray diverse cultures and nations in different aeons, populated with an array of characters, moods and sentiments.</p> <p>Sri Aurobindo spent almost all his growing years in England, studying English and other classical literatures and the impact of this reading is discernible in his plays. He seems to be particularly impressed by the Elizabethan drama and employs its technique in matters of plot construction and characterisation. He is said to have perfected the English blank verse which he deftly displays in the dialogues of his characters. His plays can thus be said to be a unique blend of the Sanskrit and Western philosophical and aesthetic theories as the plot, the climax, the progression and the theme is unmistakably Indian. He seems to have been influenced by the Sanskrit playwrights like Bhasa, Kalidas and Bhavabhuti and all five plays are imbued with the poetry and romance which is similar in spirit and flavour of the distinctive dramatic type which was the signature style of Bhasa, Kalidas and Bhavabhuti, and simultaneously preserve the Aurobindonian undertones. The paper attempts to elucidate the ‘Evolution of Man’ which Sri Aurobindo mounts through his plays.</p> Ansh Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Ansh Sharma 2020-09-17 2020-09-17 8 9 39 53 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10752 Politics of Language and Linguistic Identity: Sadri Replacing other Adivasi Languages in Sundargarh <p>Movements related to languages are interesting phenomena with a load of consequences on the fate of languages. A powerful language with state backing is capable of weakening and dismantling the structure of a language which is less powerful and without any political backings. However, there are languages which find other ways to growth and popularity. People find interesting reasons to switch to a different language. Sadri, tribal lingua-franca in the district of Sundargarh, Odisha is enjoying a privileged linguistic space at the cost of other adivasi languages.</p> Dr. Ajit Kumar Kullu Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Ajit Kumar Kullu 2020-09-19 2020-09-19 8 9 54 62 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10753 Imprisoned Womanhood in Nawal El Saadawi's Woman at Point Zero and Tehmina Durrani's Blasphemy: A Comparative Study <p>The prism of female writing has expanded itself in the current scenario. Contemporary writers have broken all the shackles of the feudal society and have come forward to make people aware of the ubiquitous and distressing condition of women. The unapologetic and unabashedly realistic portrayal of women bound in the shackles of caste and gender in Tehmina Durrani’s <em>Blasphemy </em>and Nawal El Saadawi’s <em>Woman at Point Zero </em>brings to surface some of the major issues concerning women’s plight. The issues of captivity, matrimony, violence, subjugation and sexism are delineated with prowess. <em>Blasphemy</em> and <em>Woman at Point Zero </em>through the narratives of their protagonists Heer and Firdaus disclose religious and patriarchal norms as a tool to subjugate and oppress women in an orthodox society. Tehmina Durrani’s <em>Blasphemy</em> depicts how distorted Islamic family code of conduct is thrust upon women compelling them to cohere to fundamental values of wedlock, motherhood, servitude and domesticity. Heer becomes a prisoner in her own haveli after her marriage to Pir Sain. Whereas Nawal El Saadawi in <em>Woman at Point Zero </em>portrays the captive life of Firdaus who is a female prisoner, waiting for her execution. The female characters demonstrate how the social, cultural and political structures are responsible for their captivity, degradation and violation.</p> <p>The present paper attempts to critically study and draw comparison between the two female protagonists. Heer and Firdaus turn captives in the haveli and prison respectively, but eventually they rip off the fake mask of the society which claims to protect women behind the veil of hypocrisy, strangulating even their basic right to be treated as a human.</p> Pankhuri Singh Dr. Syed Wahaj Mohsin Copyright (c) 2020 Pankhuri Singh, Dr. Syed Wahaj Mohsin 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 8 9 63 73 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10761 Margaret Atwood: A Sound Ecologist <p>This paper is an attempt to explore the ecological issues in <strong><em>Margaret Atwood’s</em></strong> novels. She happens to raise her voices against the demolition of the forests, advocating very strongly to pay attention to ecological principles for the preservation of the environment for the future generation. She tends to express her deep sense of anxiety over the ecological issues as depicted in <strong><em>The Handmaid’s Tale (1985)</em></strong> and again in the stories and fables of <strong><em>Wilderness Tips (1991)</em></strong> and <strong><em>Good Bones (1992)</em></strong>. Her novel – <strong><em>Surfacing (1972)</em></strong> begins and ends with the forest starting like a detective story. Her most significant search-operation begins when she happens to dive into the lake, looking for the Indian rock paintings recorded in her father’s drawings in chapter 17 of the novel. Environment or wilderness strongly figures out in her fabric of <strong><em>Canadian</em></strong> identity. It has multiple functions : as a marker of geological location, as a spatial metaphor and as a popular cultural myth of <strong><em>Canada</em></strong>. Geographically, it is defined as <strong><em>‘wild uncultivated land’</em></strong>. She rediscovers the White English – <strong><em>Canadian</em></strong> construction of identity, charting a distinctive <strong><em>New World </em></strong>positioning in relation to history, geography and culture suggestive of continuity between immigration narratives and a contemporary awareness of psychic location. Environment holds a very significant place in her portrayal of <strong><em>Canadian</em></strong> identity. She personally holds a bitter experience of Colonialism and its outcome on <strong><em>Canada</em></strong> and <strong><em>Canadians</em></strong> in the post-colonial era. Her fiction comprises of several post-colonial themes such as survival, hybridization, isolation, hegemony, displacement, loss of identity, banishment, multiculturalism, homelessness, colonization of the mind and of the natural world. Thus this paper seeks to analyze the different shades of ecology and ecocriticism exploring the organic unity between the man and the environment. This theory has gained a great importance since last few years. The ecological balance between the human and environment is shattered. People have deviated from their moral duties towards nature. Thus as a sound observer of ecology, she finds out the misuse and colonization of the natural world.</p> Dr. Ratnesh Baranwal Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Ratnesh Baranwal 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 8 9 74 83 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10766 In Trail of the Clash of two Civilizations <p>Nature is full of mysteries which compel one to explore the hidden passages. The passionate urge might take a traveller into the deepest corners of forgotten lands which have truths to be unraveled. Each and every space dynamics has its own temporality and ideological framework which shapes the entire course of ones ideas. The paper will talk about the travelling account of Che Guevara captured in his memoir <em>The Motorcycle Diaries</em>. The book traces the early travels of this Marxist revolutionary. The idea behind is to mark the curvature of topological transformation and its impact on the ideological framework of a person. The paper will explore the interconnections and impact of different spaces encountered during a travel and the nature of discourse which develops during such explorations. Ideas have a disposition to travel with the moving discourse where the architectural domain shapes the outline of the traveller’s thought process. Here Che Guevara’s trip through South America will portray the flow of ideas through different spaces formulating the base for his revolutionary ideas. Through the account of Francisco Pizarro during the conquest of Incan civilization and through the impact of this event on the civilization as a collective whole, the paper will attempt to analyze the ethical curvature of two distinct civilizations, namely the Incan and the Christian Imperial West. The conquest of the South American continent and the consequent clash was cataclysmic, as the socio-economic subversion is still embedded almost non- retrievably deep in terms of its collateral. The paper will include “Heights of Machu Picchu” by Pablo Neruda which again is set during his travelling account to Machu Picchu, which is the marker of a lost civilization where the distorted architecture echoes the richness and the loss at the same time.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Rashmi Sirohi Copyright (c) 2020 Rashmi Sirohi 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 8 9 84 97 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10767 Achievers of Freedom in the Select Novels of Rabindranath Tagore <p>My article analyses the achievers of freedom in the select novels of Tagore who dedicate themselves to the higher ideals of love, self-knowledge and truth. They represent Tagore’s vision of&nbsp;&nbsp; freedom where man-made shackles fail to trap the Universal Man. Tagore’s idea of freedom begins with the personal and ends with the universal. The different characters in his novels reach different levels of freedom in their search. They struggle as they are faced with challenges, but they all grow. The true achievers analyzed in the select novels of Tagore are the emancipated characters who possess the innate strength to confront the outward challenges of the society and achieve ultimate freedom by transcending from the lower self through love, knowledge and creativity.</p> Dr. Silima Nanda Dr. Hanny Gandhi Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Silima Nanda, Dr. Hanny Gandhi 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 8 9 98 116 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10768 Cultural Inheritance and Subjugation in Mahasweta Devi’s Water <p>This paper focuses on the cultural inheritance and the Subjugation of the oppressed in Mahasweta Devi’s play, <em>Water (Jal),</em> which was translated by Samik Bandyopadhyay. Mahasweta Devi, a Bengali writer, was a committed social activist, dramatist, novelist, short story writer and winner of many prestigious awards for her contribution to the field of literature and cultural studies. She has written several novels and short stories in her native language, almost half of which were later translated. Her works are based on the marginalised and the oppressed, projecting her concern for the downtrodden. In the play, the basic consent was denied for a particular group of people which in turn exploded into a rebellion.The use of characters, plot construction and structure paves way for the exploration of the conflict between the oppressor and the oppressed. This paper also focuses on the myth and the agrarian society of the post-colonial India in regard to the play.</p> Deepa Rathna C. R Copyright (c) 2020 Deepa RathnaC. R 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 8 9 117 124 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10769 Scripting Subalternity and the Crisis of Contemporaneity: Reading B. R. Ambedkar’s Annihilation of Caste <p>The paper attempts a subaltern reading of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s <em>Annihilation of Caste</em> and tries to highlight the importance of the speech as a subaltern script in the contemporary world. It foregrounds how subaltern voices are supressed in India with the influence of religious and caste politics. The representation of the subaltern mass is problematized by this nexus which further leads to a total control over their lives. A resurrection of silenced voices is the need of the hour.</p> Arjun R Dr. Tom Thomas Copyright (c) 2020 Arjun R, Settings Dr. Tom Thomas 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 8 9 125 135 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10771 Studying Human Relationships in the Short Stories of Bhabani Bhattacharya <p>Bhabani Bhattacharya is a kind of author who writes mostly on human relationships. In <em>Steel Hawk and other Stories</em> which were published in 1968 there are various such kind of stories. His themes are traditional but new because he has a different and innovative way of writing. His characters are also very interesting and they are influenced from real human societies. This realistic and idealistic approach is very uncommon. In <em>A moment of Eternity</em> we can see a fine blend of realism and idealism. This shows that how he uses the traditional human values as a raw material for his short stories. His experiments with traditional values of life are full of new possibilities and hopes. In some cases we can also find that his characters are alienated and repressed but still there is some sense of optimism in their lives. If they reflect pessimism then this can be a chance of learning for readers. Bhabani Bhattacharya believes that a writer must not impose his school of thoughts on his readers. So in his short stories readers are free to analyze the different situations of life. The story like <em>public figure</em> shows that how a man can change in life. This changing is not normal as it can lead him to identity crisis which can be painful. After reading his short stories we can easily locate that there is a kind of synthesis between modernism and traditionalism in most of his writings. Stories like the <em>steel hawk</em>, <em>The Acrobats</em> , <em>Names are not table’s</em> and <em>the quack</em> are noteworthy as they reflect real life situations. They are not simply stories but they present the way by which life can treat an individual. It also shows a better craftsmanship of the author.</p> Dr. Kajal Kumari Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Kajal Kumari 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 8 9 136 144 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10773 A Revival of the Romantic Era as seen through a Comparative Study of Auld Lang Syne and Sumer Is Icumen In <p>The Romantic Movement of 19<sup>th</sup> century Britain is often credited to William Wordsworth, while his predecessor, Robert Burns is regarded as the pioneer of the movement with his poetic themes of simplicity, friendship, and reverence for nature and rustic life, to name a few. Yet, on looking back at the medieval ages, one comes across the anonymous poem <em>Sumer Is Icumen</em> In that is centred around similar themes and ideas. This, thus, calls for a more nuanced analysis and understanding of the romantic ideologies that then do not appear to be new to the 19<sup>th</sup> century, but simply recurrent of what already existed. Therefore, through a comparative study of Robert Burns’ <em>Auld Lang Syne</em> and the medieval poem <em>Sumer Is Icumen In</em>, this paper will seek to place Burns either as the pioneer of the romantic movement or as a reviver of a medieval tradition. I will explore the themes, features, and form that persist in these poems.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nadia De Souza Copyright (c) 2020 Nadia De Souza 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 8 9 145 150 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10776 The Problem of Ethnicity in Khaled Hosseini's The Kite Runner <p>Ethnicity is a worldwide matter and is based on a cluster of personality originated from some ancestry and shares some common traits like language, culture, religion, rite and rituals of the society. Belonging to the same inherited status every member of the ethnic group share same dress -style and have similar physical appearance. "Ethnicity refers to a group of people who are of the same origin, history, values , attitude and behavior[<sup>1</sup>].In every nation throughout the world, there are some ethnic group. Afghanistan is such a country where there is a large number of ethnic group like - Pashtuns, Hazara, Tajik, Uzbek, Aimak, Turkman,and Beloch etc. Khaled Hosseini's <em>The Kite Runner</em> set in Afghanistan and U.S.A. depicts the two major ethnic group of Afghanistan-Pashtuns and Hazara along with their social, cultural and religious conflict. In "<em>The Kite Runner</em> "the Pashtuns the largest ethnic group of the nation, run the country and have the power in their hands whereas Hazara are small in group are slave to them.</p> Sofior Rahman Pramanik Copyright (c) 2020 Sofior Rahman Pramanik 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 8 9 151 157 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10777 Impact of Casteism in Dalit Women: A Contextual Study of Jyoti Lanewar’s “Mother” <p>The intention of this article is to bring out the effect of casteism over dalit women who are suppressed as a dalit and also as women. This article shows light on the oppression imposed over the dalits in daily basis, which is prevailing even today in every possible forms. This article also deals with how “Mother”, as a woman was also gets affected by the patriarchy, which includes men of so called upper castes and lower caste and also how she was abused by her husband. The self-respect of the dalits and also the unnoticed hard work of them for the development of the country from healthcare to infrastructure is also discussed in this article. Education is the only way which helps dalits to rise their voice out of the oppression over them. This poem “Mother” deals with every aspect of dalit life and their constant struggle to come out of it.</p> Benlin Anand S S Copyright (c) 2020 Benlin Anand S S 2020-09-28 2020-09-28 8 9 158 164 10.24113/ijellh.v8i9.10778