SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH <p><strong>SMART MOVES JOURNAL&nbsp;IJELLH</strong>&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed (refereed) and open access journal<strong>.</strong>&nbsp;IJELLH is indexed with&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;<a href=";hl=en&amp;authuser=1" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEpmvLz85rDq7nHLXm3B9JKSvTL1w">Google Scholar</a></strong>&nbsp;and &nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" data-saferedirecturl=";source=gmail&amp;ust=1576664770299000&amp;usg=AFQjCNEUekxyd4bJz8pEsTwPT1wuvkAmHg">Academia</a>. SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH has been granted new Online ISSN: 2582-3574 and Print ISSN: 2582-4406.&nbsp;The journal is published by SMART MOVES publications, Bhopal, India.</p> <p>The previously granted&nbsp;ISSN&nbsp;2321-7065 was for the International Journal of English Language, Literature in Humanities (IJELLH), which&nbsp;was valid from June 2013 until November 2019. From&nbsp;November 2019 onwards,&nbsp;the new title of the journal will be SMART MOVES JOURNAL IJELLH. IJELLH provides researchers with an online platform to&nbsp;publish their research work.</p> <p><strong>Aims and&nbsp;Scope&nbsp;for publication:</strong></p> <p>The primary objective of IJELLH is to offer an online open-access platform for international researchers. IJELLH &nbsp;publishes articles on a broad spectrum of&nbsp;English Language, English Literature and Linguistics. The journal further covers various aspects of the research field and most of these are mentioned hereafter:</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;English Language</strong>&nbsp;– Grammar, Punctuation, Accent, Comparative Study, ELS (English as a second or foreign language), English language teachers’ training, Language teaching methodologies<strong>&nbsp;</strong>and&nbsp;other related topics.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;English Literature</strong>&nbsp;– Fiction from Chaucerian Age to Post Colonial Age, Canadian Literature, Indian Literature &amp; many other topics related to Literature till date&nbsp;and&nbsp;related subject areas.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Linguistics</strong> – Linguistics is the scientific study of language. There are three aspects to this study: language form, language meaning and language in context. IJOHMN published following subject areas like Applied Linguistics, Language Acquisition, Language Documentation, Linguistic Theories, Philosophy of Language, Phonetics, Sociolinguistics, Text and Corpus Linguistics, Translating and Interpreting, Writing Systems and&nbsp;related subject areas.</p> en-US (Sandeep) (JOHN) Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Comparing Writing Errors of English Compositions for Boy and Girl Students in the English Graders of Southern Taiwan <p>This study aims to investigate the comparison of the English writing errors for both boy and girl students in the eighth graders’ English writing performance. The researcher collected 26 copies of English writing pieces from 26 boy and girl students in the eighth graders at Affiliated Junior High School of National Kaohsiung Normal University. This study is conducted with both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The major findings of this study are summarized as follows:</p> <ol> <li>The results show that the levels of boy and girl students’ English writing proficiency are mixed and most boy and girl students are less-experienced writers.</li> <li>All of the errors committed by boy and girl students are mainly fall upon lexical errors and grammatical errors. In addition, subcategorization is made 11 subcategories are listed under the two major error types.</li> <li>Among 26 copies of writing pieces, approximately about 65 % refers to grammatical errors and 26 % refers to lexical errors respectively.</li> <li>Possible factors in the English writing errors may refer to interlingual interference, intralingual interference, induced errors, cultural differences, structural differences, and carelessness.</li> </ol> Ker-Wei Chang Copyright (c) 2020 Ker-Wei Chang Sat, 18 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Laila Lalami’s The Moor’s Account: A Lost Narrative <p>From the earlier times the voices of the minorities especially the Muslims have been subjugated by the forces. Many of the texts written in the olden times, whether fictional or non-fictional hardly have any mention of Muslims in them. One such text being the historical account of the Narvaez expedition that took place in 1527, which was chronicled by Cabeza de Vaca, one of the four survivors of the expedition. What is surprising is that one of the survivors was an African slave, Estabanico but he is hardly mentioned in the original, despite being part of the expedition that stretched to eight year. Fast forward to the 21<sup>st</sup> century which is the age of postcolonialism and where the once oppressed communities are finally speaking about their truth, Moroccan author, Laila Lalami through her novel, The Moor’s Account decided to give voice and a backstory to the African slave, Estabanico. The current paper deals with the complexities of the novel and tries to provide reasons as to why Cabeza de Vaca intentionally omitted the Estabanico’s account of the travels. The paper also discusses the ingenuine use of narrative tools made by the author in the retelling of the story of a forgotten Muslim slave. It also narrates the importance of women characters in the Islamic culture of those days, when the western woman was not as liberated as she is today. Lastly, the paper draws a parallel between Estabanico’s condition during the expedition and that of the Muslim population in the post 9/11 world.</p> Sanaila Ghufran Copyright (c) 2020 Sanaila Ghufran Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Self- Liberation Vs Self- Renunciation in Hedda Gabler <p>Henrik Ibsen, by using Hedda as the heroine or anti-heroine of the play <em>Hedda Gabler</em>, was clearly attacking a culture which stifled women’s potential and fostered the feelings of entrapment and desperation that Hedda experiences. For all her flaws, the character of Hedda Gabler serves as a potent reminder of the individual’s complex relationship to society and how we today reconcile our own needs with the roles and responsibilities expected of us. In following Hedda’s psychological descent throughout the play, Ibsen was plainly criticizing the lack of acceptable life choices and opportunities for women in nineteenth-century society. The purpose of my research paper is to justify Hedda’s act of suicide as an act of self-liberation vs self-renunciation. Her downfall is ultimately her own doing-she makes the mistake of marrying George for the wrong reasons but she is also a heavily flawed character who unsuccessfully manipulates people in an attempt to negotiate her own weakness. She chooses death not because of any insight she has gained from her mistakes but because she cannot face the consequences of her action. Thus, Hedda’s death is tragic because it is an act of self-renunciation: she is free spirit who cannot be tamed by conventional society.</p> Ms. Swarna Copyright (c) 2020 Ms. Swarna Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Women in Patriarchy: A Study of Sexual Colonialism in Colleen McCullough’s The Thorn Birds <p>Colleen McCullough, a famous Australian women novelist, extensively deals with the issue of sexual colonization by exhibiting the fact that this world belongs to men not to women where women suffer and men cause them pain. Meggie, the central character in the novel is shown as the victim, sufferer and the colonized individual and Paddy, Ralph and Luke are shown as the epitome of the British colonizers who misused, misbehaved and degraded the women during their colonial rule. The novelist while sketching women characters does not asseverate as ostensible women of letters but for the delineation of patriarchy in the novel <em>The Thorn Birds</em> which clearly manifests her declivity in the vicinity of the infringement with women in Australian society.&nbsp;</p> Dr. Deepali Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Deepali Sharma Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 LLS use and Proficiency: Assamese ESL Learner’s Context <p>This paper studies the relationship of Language Learning Strategies (LLS) use and proficiency. Four hundred and fifty undergraduate Assamese ESL learners from three colleges of Dibrugarh University, Assam participated in the study. The aim of the paper is to investigate the relationship of Assamese ESL Learner’s use of LLS and reading and writing proficiency in English. A Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) based questionnaire is used to identify learner’s use of LLS and a reading and writing activity questionnaire is used to measure learner’s proficiency. The participants answered the instruments at the beginning of the experiment, followed by LLS instruction for four weeks and a post-test on the same questionnaires. The Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlation between the use of all the six types of LLS categories and learner’s proficiency in reading and writing, both in the pre and post-test context. The study recommends that LLS instruction should be integrated in the undergraduate ESL classrooms to increase learner’s proficiency in English.</p> Dr. Atonu Kakoty Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Atonu Kakoty Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Language in Multicultural Society <p>Learning a language, is not only learning sounds, alphabets and grammar, but it also means learning the customs and cultural norms. We all grow up in social circles, we informally learn how to use language expressions, gestures, tones. We get to learn the acceptable behaviors or language use in our society. We all speak Languages. We all imbibe Cultures. Language expresses a particular meaning that represents the culture of a particular social group. We interact with a language and culture becomes its reference point.</p> <p>Krober(1923) expresses, "Culture, then, began when speech was present, and from then on, the enrichment of either means the further development of the others". Hence, language and culture are complex, yet inseparable form of human interactions. Culture is complexly intertwined with language. Human interactions are defined as communication. The communicative force of culture works not only in representing aspects of reality, but also in connecting one context with another.</p> <p>According to the linguistic relativity principle, the way we think about the world, gets influenced by the language we use to express it and vice versa. Therefore, consciously or unconsciously, we show certain behaviors and carry certain language habits which are deeply rooted in our culture. Thus learning a language means learning and adopting that culture.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>This paper deals with this very relationship of language and culture with a cross-cultural interaction, how teaching and learning a foreign language plays a role in learning the target culture. This paper will make recommendations for effective culture education in foreign language classroom to develop intercultural competence.</p> Dr. Neerja Samajdar Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Neerja Samajdar Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Voice of Subaltern Souvali in Mahasweta Devi’s After Kurushetra <p>In the contemporary scenario, <em>Subaltern Studies</em> group brings together the writers, like Amitav Ghosh and Mahasweta Devi who have been frequently associated with subaltern concerns. Mahasweta Devi is a champion of subaltern community and through her works she always indicts and questions the government and other people about the sanctioning of human rights to dalits, tribals, women and children. Mahasweta Devi’s <em>After Kurushetra</em> narrates the stories of women who were subalternized by the kings and queens of Hastinapur. The life stories of these women appeared in the forms of short stories namely “The Five Women (Panchakanya)”, “Kunti and the Nishadin (Kunti O Nishadi), and “Souvali” in <em>After Kurushetra</em>. “Souvali” narrates the story of Souvali who was a dasi working in the royal palace of Hastinapur: She was sexually exploited by Dhritarashtra and gave birth to a son named Yuyutsu. Though Yuyutsu @ Souvalya was not considered by Dhritarashtra as his first son, yet he was allowed by Yudhishtira to give ‘tarpan’ to Dhritarashtra during the time of ‘mahatarpan.’ Souvalya, as a son, had done his duty to Dhritarashtra but Souvali voiced against the oppressions meted on her by the king through her action. She did not adhere to the norms of widowhood after the death of Dhritarashtara for she was never considered by him as his wife.</p> Dr. A.R. Uma Ramamoorthy Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. A.R. Uma Ramamoorthy Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diasporic Consciousness and Identity Trauma in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake <p>In the contemporary era, immigration, exile and expatriation are related to home, identity, nostalgia, memory and isolation. These are the recurrent theme in the diasporic writings of the post-colonial writers like V.S. Naipaul, Salman Rushdie, Bharati Mukherjee, Jhumpa Lahiri and so on.</p> <p>Identity is a topical issue in the contemporary study of culture with many ramifications for the study of ethnicity, class, gender, race, sexuality and subcultures. It becomes an issue when something assumed to be fixed, coherent, and stable is displaced by the experience of doubt and uncertainty. When a period of uncertainty and confusion upsets a person’s identity, it becomes insecure, usually due to a change in the expected aims or role in society. This identity trauma brings a sense of longing and loss as seen in Lahiri’s stories.</p> <p>&nbsp;The present article focuses on the first generation and second generation immigrants adherence to the old and new land as can be found in Jhumpa Lahiri’s <em>The Namesake</em>. Lahiri represents her characters struggling to balance the two worlds that involve the issues of immigration, race, class, and culture.&nbsp;</p> Himadri Shyam Copyright (c) 2020 Himadri Shyam Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Kiran Desai’s Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard: A Critique <p>In <em>Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard, </em>her debut novel, Kiran Desai has experimented in the making of a comic fable.&nbsp; She presents a hilarious story of life, love, and family relationships - simultaneously capturing the vivid culture of the Indian subcontinent and the universal intricacies of human experience.&nbsp; The story is set in a small Indian but fictitious town called Shahkot.&nbsp; Sampath is the protagonist who belongs to a middle class family.&nbsp; After experiencing drastic boredom in his life, Sampath decides to spend his life in trees.&nbsp; And then after, the story reveals its real mood.&nbsp; At a deeper level, the novel displays the theme of alienation, magic realism, rebellion, etc.&nbsp; Desai is a masterful dialogue writer, and she uses this skill to great effect in <em>Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard</em>.&nbsp; She infuses the dialogue with local idioms and paints a vivid portrait of life in a small city in India.&nbsp; With a clear objective of writing a comic satire, she also makes a satirical attack against the creation of gurus in Indian society.</p> Avinash L. Pandhare Copyright (c) 2020 Avinash L. Pandhare Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Female Sexuality, Desire and Writing as Reflected in the Poetry of Carol Ann Duffy <p>This study attempts to explore the heterogeneity of desires and sexualities as reflected in Carol Ann Duffy’s poetry. I show (a) how she simultaneously depicts both lesbian and heterosexual desires and (b) also addresses their problematic aspects. I argue that (c) female subjectivities are constructed both through wives’ monologues about their male partners as in heterosexual marriages and through men’s reflection upon women in male-voiced monologues as well. But I also (d) examine poems where the expression of desire in language and—not the sexed subjects—is her principal aim. Yet in the light of my previous exposition on female subjectivities, I refuse to reduce her various sexual positions to mere linguistic constructs. Finally I demonstrate (e) how her equal employment of ‘soft’ and ‘tough’ words veers from any systematic development of a pure ‘common’ female language.</p> Spandita Das Copyright (c) 2020 Spandita Das Wed, 22 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Decentering of Anthropocentric Interactions and Restructuring of Ecocentric Dialogues in the Interdependence between Man and Nature through Fantasy and Fictional Narratives <p>Since the onset of industrialization around the year 1800, along with its growing dependence on fossil fuels, have moved us from the Holocene era and into what is now being called the Anthropocene era. Much of the meaning attributed to the human- nature interaction is anthropocentric and this has resulted in causing a disturbing dialogue between nature and man. Many authors have tried to reform anthropocentric signs into the nature-centric sign to convey environmentalist themes and signify the natural environment as independent, culturally complex, and worthy of humanity’s respect. The paper aims to elaborate on the applicability of eco semiotics in literary analysis, especially in regards to fantasy and fictional literature. With the help of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry’s <em>The Little Prince</em>, Rudyard Kipling’s<em> The Jungle Book</em>, the 2016 animation film Moana, and the 2009 sci-fi film Avatar, this paper will examine the literature concerning eco semiotics(natural symbols and their interpretation across cultural-ecological boundaries) in an effort to provide an alternative to the positivist approach inherent in much contemporary environmental thought that has contributed to the present environmental crisis (Verhagen, 2008).</p> Silpa Krishnan V S, Priyanka Tresa Paul Copyright (c) 2020 Silpa Krishnan V S, Priyanka Tresa Paul Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Communicative English Learning Issues: A Cognitive and Linguistic Study <p>Teaching English as a foreign language/second language calls for intensive attention of students with involvement and dedication. There are several cognitive and linguistic barriers associated with anxiety viz., strict class room, fear of making mistakes, variations in self perception, linguistic difficulties, pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary which affect their effectiveness in communication. Once the learners are freed from the clutches of unnecessary anxieties, there is a large scope for their effective learning and ultimately their English communication skill too can be developed who are learning English as Second Language focusing Odia learners studying at engineering Colleges in Odisha.</p> Dr Amita Naik, Dr. Bairagi Patra Copyright (c) 2020 Dr Amita Naik, Dr. Bairagi Patra Sat, 25 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Chetan Bhagat's "Five Point Someone" Potrayal of Youth Society-A Fascinating Novel of Friendship and Creativity <p>A story about three students at IIT who do not prosper at IIT, on IITs positions. Getting into IIT definitely shows that they have brainpowers; not receiving out ofIIT shows that they do not have the brilliances. As the subtitle "What not to do at IIT" suggests, the protagonist do everything that is unthinkable at IIT. Though this book is well written, it leaves a lot to be expected and the plot could have been better. I read this book after watching the movie 3 Idiots and the movie is much better written than the book. Though I agree with</p> <p>Mr.Bhagat’s writings are nearly a bit of the picture is based on the book.</p> Dr. P. Revathy, Dr. V. Peruvalluthi Rtd Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. P. Revathy,Dr. V. Peruvalluthi Rtd Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Doris Lessing’s Science Fiction <p>Doris Lessing, the Nobel Laureate (1919-2007), a British novelist, poet, a writer of epic scope, playwright, librettist, biographer and short story writer. She was the “most fearless woman novelist in the world, unabashed ex-communist and uncompromising feminist”. Doris has earned the great reputation as a distinguished and outstanding writer. She raised local and private problems of England in post-war period with emphasis on man-woman relationship, feminist movement, welfare state, socio-economic and political ethos, population explosion, terrorism and social conflicts in her novels.</p> Ms. Shikha Sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Ms. Shikha Sharma Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Existentialist Perspective: A Study of Taslima Nasrin's Novel French Lover <p>Taslima Nasrin is a liberal humanist writer who struggles for freedom and continues to stand by people who face injustice in her writings. <em>French Lover</em> is the story of an Indian woman who in a traditional cover-up of patriarchy is submissive, conventional, and oppressive. The novel is a portrait of a woman who efforts to subvert the patriarchal traditions and come out from the shackles of stereotypical beliefs and conventionality. Nila, the protagonist, meanders her way in real life where she breaks and goes away from the mismatched marriage and rejects the experience offered by Benoir. Nila being a strong character retains her individuality against the destructive forces that challenged her existence. She faces an existential crisis when she detaches herself from her family, her husband, and her French lover. She undergoes the subsequent trauma and her successful exit from all the hurdles makes her realize that she has an existence of her own that is distinct from all others and She is free to choose and exist authentically. Danielle, the other character subjugated by her near and dear in her very early age, disowned her relations and denied conventionality where she lives via her way. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Savita Yadav Copyright (c) 2020 Savita Yadav Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 “Hope Lies in the Proles”: Tell-tale Notes of Warning in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four <p>An exaggeration of the political climate of the day, the futuristic <em>Nineteen Eighty-Four</em> manifests an abundance of Orwell’s genius of framing a political world of rare excellence, and gives the impression of being written to frighten people into a distasteful recognition of the dangers of the present and future. In it, Orwell exemplifies a world where man’s identity is not only <em>lost</em> but laboriously <em>erased</em> to cripple his sense of individuality, and implicitly directs us to the realization that under such paralysing conditions, the only promise of hope lies not in the hands of the power holders and their pawns, but in the everyman, the working-class citizen or the <em>prole</em>- who by their design and partly his own, continues to live unconscious of such oppression and willingly cooperates with his oppressor.&nbsp; The impetus to work on the topic, ‘<em>The Hope is in the Proles: Tell-tale Notes of Warning in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four</em>’ came from an arresting realization of the ugly truth captured in the pages of the novel that explores themes of totalitarianism, penetrative state control, mass surveillance, mutability of the past, role of language in sustaining a people, man’s degradation to a mere automaton and the potential power of the working class.</p> <p>The purpose of this research is to: first, substantiate the hope that Orwell as well as his protagonist Winston claims, lies in the proles, and second, highlight the alarm-raising notes of warning that layer the writing. By analyzing the details of Winston’s journey and his fall in principles, the aim is to cast a look at the dystopia as Orwell’s attempt to chronicle a future the writer didn’t want the world to see come true.</p> Ipsita Mallick Copyright (c) 2020 Ipsita Mallick Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparitive Study of Magical Realism in One Hundred Years of Solitude and the Legends of Khasak <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Macondo like Malgudi, a fictional town created by the Latin American novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez in his magnum opus <em>One Hundred Years of Solitude</em> with its cosmic spirituality and surreal characters lies deep-hearted in the minds of literary lovers all over the world. But far away from Colombian hills and miles apart from its vast seas lies Vijayan’s <em>&nbsp;Khasak</em>. A fine work of magical realism which changed the trajectory of Malayalam novel that got lost in translation like many other great works of Malayalam literature. This paper attempts to critically analyze both these novels in their socio-cultural and post-colonial perspectives and how they contribute to the genre of magical realism.</p> Narghese Hussair Copyright (c) 2020 Settings Narghese Hussair Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Metaphysical and Ontological Quest Inwilliam Faulkner’s as I Lay Dying <p>Compared to the long and often tortuous delivery of Faulkner’s other great masterpieces—<em>The Sound and the Fury</em> and <em>Absalom, Absalom!</em>—his fifth novel, <em>As I Lay Dying,</em> came to him fully formed at its inception and was completed in a great sprint of imaginative intensity. “Before I began I said,” Faulkner declared, “I am going to write a book by which, at a pinch, I can stand or fall if I never touch ink again.” Faulkner’s grotesquely heroic account of the hard-scrabble Bundren family’s attempt to bury its matriarch, Addie, while contending with what Faulkner described as “the two greatest disasters known to man: flood and fire” on their journey through the blazing heat of midsummer Mississippi is fractured into 59 alternating monologues by 15 witnesses, from the four Bundren brothers—Cash, Jewel, Darl, and Vardaman—their sister Dewey Dell, and their father Anse, to a chorus of eight neighbors and those encountered along the way, as well as the dead Addie herself. In Faulkner’s daring, Cubistlike structure of multiple, juxtaposed perspectives, narrative coherence and a full understanding of the family’s past and motives emerge only gradually, reassembled by the reader out of often conflicting, subjective, and biased testimony. With such a book, Faulkner asserted, “the finished work is simply a matter of fitting bricks neatly together, since the writer knows probably every single word right to the end before he puts the first onedown. This happened with <em>As I Lay Dying</em>. It was not easy. No honest work is. It was simple in that all the material was already at hand.” The result is one of Faulkner’s greatest technical achievements and one of his most profound explorations of the human condition. With <em>As I Lay Dying</em> Faulkner dissolves the fundamental polarities of human existence: life and death, the individual and the group, language and actuality, private and public, comedy and tragedy in pursuit of a new synthesis that expresses a fuller truth. As much a metaphysical and ontological quest as a family’s internment drama, <em>As I Lay Dying</em> is in every sense the tour de force that Faulkner habitually described it, a masterpiece in which the vernacular and its regional setting buttress a profound, universal human drama.</p> Ms. Priya Nair Copyright (c) 2020 Settings Ms. Priya Nair Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Connecting Word with World: Reading as an Act of Cognitive Exploration <p>In spite of the many methodologies tried out in the last two centuries in India, the teaching-learning of English is still heavily dependent on reading. The main reason may be attributed to the fact that all subjects including science and technology have their mainstay in reading both in classrooms and at home. Even then, adequate attention has not been paid to reading instruction at the primary and secondary levels; as a result, when the learners reach the tertiary level where they are supposed to work on their own by reading and referring to books and journals, most of them end up as miserable failures just because of their poor and inadequate reading habits. While teachers focus only on the final outcome, tests and examinations solely depend on the learner’s net result of reading which is expected to get reflected in writing. A serious attempt to follow the reader in his course of reading may reveal the myriads of complexities which the act of reading passes through. This paper is just an attempt of making teachers of English aware of the fact that a learner’s success or failure in his academic pursuit is almost determined by his reading efficiency. Therefore this paper outlines the intricate cognitive processes involved in reading a second language.</p> Sushama. S. Jacob, Dr. P. Bhaskaran Nair Copyright (c) 2020 Sushama. S. Jacob,Settings Dr. P. Bhaskaran Nair Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Information and Communication Technology in Education: Innovations Methods in 21st Century <p>ICT is emerging as a big stimulating force and there is urgent need to integrate ICT with education because of several opportunities. In view of ICT, education can be classified in four main categories. Emerging challenges for ICT use are related to infrastructure, teacher, capacity-building, technical support, language and content. Cloud computing, e-learning, M-learning, Web 2.0, Simulation are newer examples of way of technologies that can be made integral part of educational institutions at a mass level.</p> <p>“Technology is the non linear tool for accelerated economic growth, and the foundation for the sustained development of the nation.”</p> <p>APJ Abdul Kalam, 2010</p> Dr. Suman Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Suman Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Hegemony in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichies’s “Apollo” <p>This paper tries to examine the operation and influence of hegemony in Adichie’s “Apollo”. Hegemony is closely linked with oppression of any kind. In “Apollo” the influence of hegemony is notable as the characters are affected by it invisibly and the characters are unaware of their oppressed/influenced state. As the characters are from Nigeria, a former colony, the aspects of colonialism and neo-colonialism are linked in the analysis of hegemony in this novel. The modes through which hegemony affects the characters are also discussed in this paper.</p> S. P. Jenifer Gandhi Copyright (c) 2020 S. P. Jenifer Gandhi Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Women In and Women Out: An Analysis of Spaces and Relationships in Anita Desai’s Select Short Stories <p>The theme of representation of women in the domestic and public arena is the quintessence of Anita Desai’s writings. This paper endeavours to focus on her two short stories, <em>‘The Domestic Maid’</em> and ‘<em>The Rooftop Dwellers</em>’, and analyses how the author presents the agonies and sufferings of women in both domestic and public space. Though the stories revolve around the lives of two women, it also shed light on the lives of other women, whose lives become hues of protagonists’ lives. ‘<em>The Domestic Maid’</em> is the story of village woman Geeta, who takes up a job of a domestic worker in the city to meet both ends of her family’s needs. Her conversation with her co-worker Chaaya, reveals her agonies and sufferings in life. ‘<em>The Rooftop Dwellers</em>’ presents the life of Moyna, who works in a literary journal and her desire for freedom and a space for her own. Moyna does not want herself to be chained in the norms and mores of the society, and the story portrays how difficult it is for a woman to find ‘her own room’ in a patriarchal society. The study sheds lights on the play of power and women’s constant desire for a free space of their own. &nbsp;The stories also delineate the theme of domestic and public violence. The former presents the issue of domestic violence, and the latter offers the idea of public violence against women.</p> Jimin S Mathew, Lucy Marium Samuel Copyright (c) 2020 Settings Jimin S Mathew, Settings Lucy Marium Samuel Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Quest for Female Identity in the Novels Bye Bye Black Bird, Fire on the Mountain and Cry the Peacock of Anita Desai <p>The first and foremost aim of this paper is to bring out Identity Quest in Anita Desai’s <em>Bye-Bye Blackbird</em> and <em>Fire on the Mountain</em>. In this novel the characters who try to know their self are portrayed accordingly. The Indian novel in English is thus characterized by a variety of themes and techniques. It is changing and developing with the time in Indian environment. Social, Political, Technological and Industrial changes have brought corresponding changes in its substance. However, in the field of characterization the Indian novelist in English has not been quite so successful. With some expectations, his characters continue to be stereotypes. Desai explores the intricate facts of human experience of psychic tensions of her characters. Her chief concern is human relationship. Her theme focused on the relationship of a couple - sensitive wife and ill-mannered husband. This paper attempts to show how they achieve the results they seek to gain in order to expose not only the extremity of the suffering endured by women but also the mental trauma of human beings.</p> Mrs. Sumitra Copyright (c) 2020 Mrs. Sumitra Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Social Media Activism and Kerala Culture <p>First there was newspaper, and then came television. And now it’s the advent of the internet. Granted it has been over two decades since its arrival, but its potential was not realized until about 2005, when the youngsters began to revel in the wonders of social media. Orkut, Facebook, Google Plus, Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr and WhatsApp are a few social media websites and mobile applications that have managed to captivate a large number of followers.</p> <p>Such sites and applications have also been of use in getting the message out there. In earlier days the main method of involving a large audience in a particular event was to take an advertisement in a newspaper. But in the present tech-savvy world of ours, a simple e-vite is enough to bring together a massive crowd. By putting up an event in Facebook, one could easily pull together enough spectators to make any affair a success.</p> <p>In present Kerala, a major movement is taking place among the online community in Facebook, WhatsApp, etc. Social media activism has become a substantial part of the average Malayalis day-to-day life. Troll pages on Facebook like <em>Troll Malayalam</em>, <em>International Chalu Union-ICU</em>, <em>Troll Republic-TR</em>, etc are responsible for bringing to its followers the many news stories that our regular daily newspapers recoil from. These troll creators or <em>trollans </em>as they are known in our society are mostly youngsters who are either in college or are in the pursuit of a job. Labelled jobless by the society whose faults they bring to light, these <em>trollans </em>work using Photoshop or other image editors with no reward in sight. Through this paper, I plan to shed light on how social media activism works in the present Kerala society and how our society regards it by focusing on a few instances of Facebook activism.</p> Tony Isaac Luke Copyright (c) 2020 Settings Tony Isaac Luke Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reciprocal Teaching in Fostering Listening Skills among Secondary Level Students <p>Reciprocal teaching strategy is a cognitive strategy employed in fostering the learners’ reading comprehension skills. This paper explores the effectiveness of the strategy by far referring to the various researches done by various researchers and justifies why reciprocal teaching strategies are useful tools to enhance the listening skills of learners. The paper also focuses on various contemporary pedagogic theories that this strategy concurs with thus proving itself to be an effective strategy that can be employed in classrooms. To conclude the paper sheds light on the importance of listening skills and how reciprocal teaching strategies can not only be used to enhance the higher-order thinking skills of the learners but also to subsequently engage learners in a meaningful and active conversation thus improving their speaking skills. The paper invariably discusses the significance of active learning and its role in bolstering the language skills of the learners.&nbsp;</p> Venkat Maithri, Dr .P. Suresh Copyright (c) 2020 Venkat Maithri, Dr .P. Suresh Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ismat Chughtai's Depiction of Homophobia Through the Story ‘Lihaaf’ <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 200%;"><span lang="EN-IN" style="color: #0e101a;">This study aims to bring attention to the homophobia of the famous female writer Ismat Chughtai with the help of her infamous short story ‘Lihaaf’ published in the pre-independent India. The short story ‘Lihaaf’ is a story of a homosexual woman named Begum Jan and her homosexual husband Nawab Saheb. Through this study, we are trying to bring the homophobic depiction of characters by the writer Ismat Chughtai in the short story ‘Lihaaf’, which has been ignored for a long time. </span></p> Pranasha Shinde, Dhananjay Shrikant Shinde Copyright (c) 2019 Dhananjay Shrikant Shinde Tue, 28 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000